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Today We are going to go over some life-saving techniques for 3 very serious situations… Okay let's pretend for a sec you’re out there living your best life when suddenly things go extremely sideways. I mean what happens if you find yourself in desperate need of medical help and you can’t get to a hospital or call 9-11? What the heck do you do?

I’ll tell you what…You should be armed with life-saving information so that you A) don’t freak out and B) Can help or at least attempt to, if you are in a worst-case scenario and you don’t have immediate access to a doctor, nurse, or some other qualified healthcare professional. Having the right know-how could very well mean the difference between life and death for you or a loved one. So pay close attention, these are some of the Dos and Don’ts of 3 Different life-threatening scenarios. From gunshot wounds to frostbite and even heart attacks, here’s how to quickly deal with very dire situations.

But of course, if you are experiencing a medical emergency please call 9-11 or your country's equivalent, get to a hospital as soon as you can.

How to deal with 3 life-saving situations if you absolutely truly cannot call 9-11.

1. Heart Attack

What do you do if you suspect you or someone you love is experiencing a heart attack and how the heck do you stop it? Can you stop it? Short Answer No you can’t stop it unfortunately but maybe you can reduce the severity until help can arrive?

Heart attacks are serious, life and death situations and occur when the flow of blood to the heart is blocked. There are many things that can cause this blockage but in the event of a true emergency, the only thing that truly matters is being able to properly identify the symptoms and attempt to handle it.

First and foremost know that the symptoms, range for sure and could even present differently between men and women but here are the common symptoms: pressure or tightness, squeezing pain in your chest, that can spread to the neck, jaw or back. One could also feel abdominal pain, or like they want to throw up, or even like they are experiencing indigestion or heartburn. Other noticeable signs are shortness of breath, cold sweats, fatigue or sudden dizziness.

Okay from there you’ve determined someone is having a heart attack. What the heck do you do if you cannot get to the hospital? First, determine if the person is conscious or unconscious. If they are conscious or awake, immediately give Aspirin, so long as one does not have some sort of allergy or other prescriptions that may interact with it. Taking aspirin during a heart attack could reduce heart damage by helping to keep your blood from clotting. Also, the best position is on the floor with the person’s knees bent and their head and shoulders supported.

Now on the other hand in the worst, worst-case scenario, the person is unconscious, you gotta first check to see if they are breathing and have a pulse. To check if they are breathing, tilt their chin up and back to open the airway and then put your face close to their face so you can feel the breath on your cheek and then look down their chest to see if you can see it lowering and raising. Which would tell you yes they are able to breathe.

Now to check their pulse, place these two fingers (index and middle) at the base of their thumb just under the bone and determine if you can feel a pulse here. If the person isn't breathing or if you don't find a pulse you should begin CPR. Now I know this is where you’re going to be like doctor no, I tap out, I haven't been trained in CPR. I hear ya and believe me normally I would never ever suggest it to an untrained person, but in the event of life or death, the whole good samaritan deal comes into play. You gotta at least try to help you know what I’m saying. CPR in the simplest terms is: Push hard and fast on the person's chest, then about 100 to 120 compressions a minute. This is about the same pace as the song staying alive. Don’t worry I’ll link other CPR classes and Videos to help further in this department, should you need it

Now other things that you can do to help until other help arrives. If you are home alone, and this is happening to you, call 9-11, lay down by the front door of your house and unlock the front door or put yourself in a very visible location so that paramedics can easily access you. Also, some experts out there, though It is not endorsed by the American heart association, say making forcible coughing-like motions to help keep the blood pumping. It’s unofficially called Cough CPR.

2. Gunshot Wound

Thankfully odds are you will never have to deal with a gunshot wound in your lifetime. But sadly given the current world climate and everything going on, this may be handy to know anyway. I, unfortunately, have to treat gunshot wounds every day in the hospital. And I’ll repeat it again, getting to the hospital or calling for emergency help is always your first line of defense in these scenarios as it gives the victim the best odds of survival.

But if this is truly the worst-case scenario and you cannot immediately get to a hospital you need to be aware of these tips. First thing first, you gotta get somewhere safe. Get out of the line of fire. Period.

The second thing for any generic GS wound is stopping the bleeding. This is Crucial. If there is a visible hole, wash your hands, or use gloves if that is an option, and put a lot of pressure on the wound. Seriously don’t be shy, just stick your fingers right on the wound or use something else to apply really direct hard pressure on the area.

I'm going to point out a common misconception for a second. A lot of people's first thought is to go to a tourniquet, Heck you see it in every movie known to man. But that's not necessarily the best step as it doesn't always apply the right type of pressure. And using them properly takes practice. Personally seeing this every day, direct pressure with your hand or fingers is better. The only time you would use a real tourniquet or some other sort of makeshift one like a belt apparatus, or bandana-type tourniquet would be if you cannot use your fingers or hand to block it directly.

Another Don’t when it comes to GS wounds: don’t elevate their legs! This will change the blood flow, and maybe even impact the way they are breathing, so just don’t do it.

Next important step, We also have to address specifically where the GS wound is located on the body. I’ll go over a few quick areas that I typically See in the ER.

1. Chest. Chest wounds can injure the heart, lungs, aorta, etc, AND can be very deadly. Some of these wounds can also create a seal sucking situation where it allows air to enter the chest, We do not want that, so to treat this type of chest wound, seal the wound first with some type of plastic if you have it, to keep air from being sucked in, this will help with things like collapsed lungs. But a word of caution, if the victim is having trouble breathing or their breathing gets worse after you seal the area immediately remove the plastic.

2. Another area to be aware of for GS Wounds is the neck or back. This is a super tricky area where any wrong movement could damage the spinal cord or cause permanent issues like paralysis.

Depending on where it is in the body, 9 out of 10 times you do not, I repeat not, have to remove the bullet, I know the movies like to really play that point up and race against the clock trying to get the bullet out of the body, but this is only in very few select cases, most of the time we leave it in. so when in doubt LEAVE IT IN. you may do more damage by taking it out.

Also, keep in mind that someone with a gunshot wound might have substantial internal injuries. That can lead to breathing difficulties, low blood pressure, and heart issues. Begin CPR if they're not breathing and again strong pressure on the wound to try and stop the bleeding.

3. Frostbite

The next bad, life-threatening scenario you may have to, unfortunately, deal with? Frostbite. If you are like me and grew up in New York and spent a lot of my medical school in freezing cold Maine and Boston, then you know temperatures can drop real quick and blizzards can roll in. That’s why you need to know what to do in the event of frostbite.

Frostbite is an injury caused by the freezing of the skin and underlying tissue. It usually happens in areas that are smaller first areas like fingers and toes and like a burn, this injury is measured in different degrees so to speak. Also you may be surprised to learn that frostbite can happen in as little as 5 minutes if skin is left exposed to cold temperatures, so take this seriously.

Alright, what does it look like? At first, the skin that's not covered might get a little red and sore, that's called frostnip and usually the first sign of worse things to come. After it progresses, frostbite will go beyond the top layers of the skin and advance to the muscles and bone below. The skin might turn yellow or white at first and feel like pins and needles or burn or itch a bit, heck you may even see some blisters appear.

Ignore all those signs of frostbite and things could get really dire quickly... In advanced stages of frostbite, the skin is very hard to the touch and may start to turn a darker shade of blue or black. Most frostbitten people at this point cannot even feel their affected body part so that is why noticing the changes in the color of the skin are often the true indicator. So pay close attention.

Alright, how do you treat it? Of course, the hospital is always the first line of defense if thats an option for you but when there are no other possible options, First you have got to get somewhere warm or find some way to warm yourself up.

Do not however rub the skin, that will only make things worse. And Skin could fall off. What you should do if possible though is soak the affected area such as hands or feet in warm water. I repeat warm water.

Not hot water because you have to slowly warm yourself back up and because you can't feel your skin, you could be burning it without even knowing. So warm water or things like warm washcloths or sponges with water on the affected areas that cannot be submerged. (like your nose or ears for instance) Do this for at least 30 minutes. Now as you thaw, it’s not going to feel great. A person may experience painful stinging or prickling sensations or even get blisters as things start to thaw out. So you may want to introduce some pain medication if you need it for nerve pain as this happens. Some studies out there suggest that aspirin may help restore blood flow to body parts with severe frostbite within 23 hours of re-warming.

In the hospital typically we will do additional things like MRI Imaging to make sure there is no damage to the mussel or tissue underneath or even scrape off dead skin. In extreme frostbite scenarios where the blood flow won't come back and the skin is necrotic, one may need surgery to remove that area that way it doesn't get infected and cause more damage to the tissue around it.

Did you know that there are a number of everyday things that people do that could be straight up killing their sperm? Questions like: Does eating walnuts affect it? How about wearing tighty whities? Drinking soda does what to one's nether regions? And does a certain type of workout have negative effects on your quality of Ummm output… We’ll discuss it, plus other everyday things you didn’t realize are destroying your swimmers.

Alright, I’m sure you’ve probably watched a movie and seen where the person awkwardly goes into a sperm bank or fertility clinic and is given a little plastic cup and has to then produce a sample. Not a Costco sampling, you know the type of peace offering I'm talking about. It’s a little nerve-wracking, maybe a little embarrassing… And all for what? The topic of infertility. In fact, did you know that in a recent study, experts found that the average sperm count over the past 38 years has declined by 59% ? Yes to put that simply Sperm count is going down my friends and I’m here to discuss possible reasons this might be happening. So here are 8 possible sperm damaging everyday habits that we need to talk about.

Number One: Lack of sleep.

Okay so If you have a habit of staying up late playing video games or binging Netflix or whatever, remember this one detail. In fact, people who got less than 6 hours of sleep per night were 31 percent less likely to get their partners pregnant as compared to those who slept 7-8 hours per night.

Why is that you may ask? Well without getting too technical, lack of sleep equals lower testosterone in the body which is essential for sperm production. But then again don’t go too crazy on the snooze button either. Other studies found that folks who slept longer than 9 hours a night often demonstrated lower fertility levels as well. So like the goldilocks and the three bears story, to make sure your porridge is just right…8 hours is truly the sweet spot to keeping things healthy.

Number 2: Processed Meat

Evidently eating processed meats like Bacon, hot dogs, salami, and so forth may decrease the reproductive hormones that help with the formation of healthier sperm. Yep, It all goes back to testosterone again. And that being said if you want to save your swimmers so to speak, you may want to order up another swimmer, some fish. That’s right, according to a study out of Harvard, Diet and semen quality were closely related.

Of 155 men they found that those who ate mostly fish or consumed a diet that was higher in omega-3 rich fish like salmon or tuna, they had higher sperm counts than those who ate less fish. And get this, there may be another helpful food as well. A small study in 2012 found that Walnuts may be key to improving sperm vitality as well. They studied 117 men ages 21 to 35 who ate 18 walnuts daily for 12 weeks. They found that their sperm was better than those who did not eat the walnuts.

Number 3: Hot Tubs and Saunas

Yep, you may have seen a hot tub time machine where those 4 friends get a glimpse of their future via the magical jacuzzi, well my friends when it comes to hot tubs and your sperm vitality, you’re going to be wishing you had a time machine to get those precious minutes and swimmers back. Yes Here’s the deal, testicles (aka the area where your sperm are produced) well they are outside of the body for a reason. You see, ideally, sperm production occurs at around 93.2 degrees Fahrenheit. Which is about 5.4 degrees below the normal body temperature of 98.6. So in other words heat-related to the hot tub or sauna exposure could affect sperm count and quality over time. In a small study that followed men and a Scandinavian-style sauna program, researchers found that people who participated in the study were found to have lower sperm counts and reduced sperm motility after the prescribed sauna use. However, they did find that the effects were reversed when their studied men avoided sauna use for three months.

Number 4: Drinking Soda

Mountain dew making you infertile? Im sure you have heard that rumor before. But in a human reproduction study, they found that folks that drank more than one sugary soda a day had lower sperm motility as compared to those who rarely guzzled soda. Super interesting data for sure but let’s think the even bigger picture here. Eating or drinking too much sugar, in general, can lead to insulin resistance which can lead to inflammation in the body which would, in turn, hinder how your sperm moves. Also too much fat in the body prompts your body to make less testosterone and higher amounts of estrogen which could be a no go for your sperm as well. So in general whether it's actually the soda, or just a general unhealthy lifestyle or higher amounts of sugar or fat in one’s body. They all can greatly affect your swimmers. Keep that in mind. This goes for alcohol as well. An occasional beer or glass of wine seems to be fine but research also linked heavier drinking to lower testosterone levels, lower sperm counts and smaller numbers of healthy sperm.

Number 5: Stress

Yep Stress, the dang stuff is just bad for the body in general and can lead to a number of life-threatening issues but here’s how it can affect one’s little reproductive cells specifically. A study out of Columbia University found that people with higher levels of stress had worse sperm quality than those who said they were less stressed. You see stress in the body throws your hormones out of whack, which we know can create inflammation in the body among other things, which in turn can be detrimental to your little friends.

Number 6: Electronics.

Well maybe not all electronics, but there are reports out there that say keeping your smartphone in your pocket or say your laptop on your lap for extended periods of time could not only hinder the way a person’s sperm moves about the cabin so to speak but it also decreases the number that is swimming around as well. Whether it’s some unforeseen radiation from the phones or heat being emitted from the electronics near your groin area hampering your sperm production, more studies would be needed to specify the exact causation but it may just be something to keep in mind. You may just want to be cautious about where you keep your laptop or phone. Like maybe don’t store your phone in your front pocket right near the scrotum if this is a concern for you.

Number 7: Cycling

Alright sorry to report but our next sperm destroyer may not sit well with cycling enthusiasts. In fact, it could be the setting that's causing the issue in the first place. But cyclists beware, because a study of Spanish triathletes that compared cyclists to non-cycling athletes found not so great news for those who like to pedal around town. The study suggested that regular cycling equated to poorer sperm quality and count for those particular athletes.

Number 8: Tighty Whities

Okay so I’ll try to keep this brief, pun intended.

Okay, all jokes aside there is some belief out there that certain underwear options could be leading to lowered count as well. So this begs the question to the boxer or not to the boxer? Well, something to consider… When the testicles are held or positioned more tightly against the body as they would be if one was wearing briefs, the scrotal temperatures could possibly elevate and damage the sperm. And evidently, the same idea applies to those who frequently cross their legs. The added friction and possible rise in temperature could be doing a number on one’s sperm.

Lowering Sperm Count:

So what exactly is considered low sperm count or as they call in the medical field: oligospermia. Well you may be surprised to learn that sperm has a pretty intense journey before its grand finale and it takes about two and a half months to prep all the sperm expelled in an average ejaculation. But once you put in the time, a human can produce around 150 million sperm a day. That means you are producing a few thousand sperm every couple of seconds. So a low count would be fewer than 39 million sperm per ejaculation. And that may sound like a lot still but you also have to think in terms of quality so to speak. They may have deformities like two heads, small heads, or do things like swim in circles. Or be damaged to the point where they can’t even swim and do business as usual at all.

Actually, some experts describe only more than half the sperm in an average semen ejaculation can swim, and higher percentages than that are not ideally shaped for swimming.

Updated: Mar 10, 2022

Separating two human beings at birth? Removing your entire esophagus? Living with a HOLE in your skull?! Here are 7 of the most dangerous medical procedures that can either heal you or kill you.

While there are many different types of medical operations and they all have risks. There are a few select procedures that prove to be EXTREMELY risky. Today we’re not holding back and discussing the Most Dangerous types of procedures to experience as a patient!

7. Separation of Conjoined Twins

Yes, a grueling 9-10 hour procedure that could involve more than 30 different surgeons and specialists like: anesthesiologists, hepatologists, nurses, technicians, and so on simultaneously all working on this crazy operation…. But let’s rewind for a second. You might be wondering what are conjoined twins?

Conjoined twins are identical twins who are joined together in utero. This is an extremely rare phenomenon that occurs only once in every 50,000 to 60,000 births. The two twins could be connected at the skull, the chest, share organs, not share internal organs, to say it gets super complicated when discussing a separation surgery would be the understatement of the year. It is extremely high risk and delicate on the most dangerous surgery scale. Also, the risk and difficulty of the separation surgery depend on where the twins are joined. I mean if the twins are conjoined in an area that cannot be divided evenly, the surgery could result in the death of one or even both twins, and the decision of whether or not even to do the separation surgery is a complicated one. In fact, only 60% of the surgically separated cases survive.

One such life-changing surgery was the story of two twins from Pakistan who were born fused at the head. Their separation process was a 6-month journey where they traveled to London and had to have three major operations and over 100 specialists involved to separate them. One twin had most of the blood vessels going into the head, while the other one had a lot of drainages and they had to develop circulation for themselves. Generally speaking, medical experts out there report that conjoined twins generally have a poor prognosis with the total survival rate at 7.5%, with only 60% of the surgically separated cases surviving, so it's a true medical miracle when these types of surgeries are successful.

6. Colectomy

From 2008-2011 some stats revealed that the mortality rate for this type of surgery was somewhere around 5.3 percent, but the complication rate was over 42 percent! That’s a very high number so what exactly is a colectomy?

A colectomy is a very involved medical surgery that removes all or part of the colon, aka the large intestine. That is the long, nearly 6-foot tube-like organ that makes up our digestive tract and handles things like dehydrating your food and turning it into the stool.

One of the most common reasons one may have to undergo emergency surgery and have part of their colon removed is an infection that can occur in the small pocket of the intestine, this is called diverticulitis. Sometimes this can be treated with antibiotics but if that infected pouch decides to rupture, surgery is sadly required to remove that part of the colon.

Other reasons you may undergo a colectomy? Volvulus or twisting of the intestine, bowel obstruction, chron disease, ulcerative colities or colon cancer. And in the case of colon cancer or colon resection surgery, where you would remove the cancerous part of the large intestine.

Colectomies are always a very complicated, delicate and serious procedure as there are always the chance for infection, bleeding, blood clots in the legs or deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism or blood clots to the lungs and damage to other nearby organs like the bladder and small intestines. And In addition to the removal of the large intestine oftentimes patients will also need other surgical additional procedures to re-attach the areas of the digestive system in order to let waste get out of the body, making this seriously one of the most burdensome surgeries to recover from and difficult procedures for physicans.

5. Bladder Cystectomy

Another Medical procedure with a high risk of complication is Bladder Cystectomy.

Cancer in the bladder is one of the most difficult types of cancers a patient can deal with because it often leads to a bladder cystectomy. There are many different ways surgeons can treat a bladder cystectomy, but open surgery, minimally invasive surgery, and robotic surgery are the three most commonly seen. This procedure involves the partial or complete removal of the bladder in the case of bladder cancer. This procedure leaves patients at a high risk of infection during this surgery, affecting the membrane lining of the abdomen. Therefore, is there the possibility that you might need an alternative way to empty your bladder, and it can also have an impact on your sex life.

4. Oesophagectomy

This is the procedure used to partially or entirely remove the esophagus aka the tube that transports food from your throat to your stomach. This is usually due to cancer. An oesophagectomy is performed to avoid the disease from spreading to the rest of the stomach or other organs. Because of the nature of the incisions, bleeding, leaking of fluids into the stomach, clots, and infection are the most significant risks. The lungs may also be affected. The size of the incisions is dependent on the severity of the process and how much of the esophagus needs to be removed. The most severe scenario is where the esophagus, a part of the abdomen, and the lymph nodes are removed via incisions in the chest, abdomen, and throat.

3. Craniectomy

The brain is clearly one of our most curial organs for life. It moves our bodies through everyday life. If one thing affects the brain, you can guarantee it’s going to throw something else out of wack too. So craniectomy presents a lot of risks. A craniectomy is especially brutal because it requires that the piece of the skull is removed to access the brain. A fraction of the skull is removed to relieve pressure on the brain. This piece of skull is not replaced immediately after the surgery is complete. Therefore, leaving the fully-recovered patient the risk of brain damage after the surgery if they do not adequately protect their head. Depending on the area of the brain where this procedure will be performed, other serious risks like changes or loss in the functions of vision, mobility, speech, memory, coordination, and more can be permanent. In the past, this type of surgery was usually performed as a last resort, but with the progress of technology, it is utilized more frequently nowadays.

2. Spinal Osteomyelitis Surgery

Infections of the spine are incredibly destructive, and any surgical procedures performed in this area come with a lot of risks, such as complete or partial paralysis, or other serious infections. Spinal osteomyelitis is an infection of the vertebrae, which is a rare but dangerous cause of back pain. Surgery is often the last resort for treating this infection, but sometimes emergency surgery is needed, mainly when sepsis occurs. Diseases of the spine can be hazardous, and operation in the area can be risky and may lead to paralysis or more infection. Antibiotics take care of most spinal infections, so requiring spinal osteomyelitis surgery is unusual.

1. Thoracic Aortic Dissection Repair

Like any form of open-heart surgery, this procedure is difficult and risky because of its delicate nature. An aortic dissection (a split or tear in your body’s main artery) is a life-threatening condition that requires thoracic aortic dissection repair, a risky emergency surgery. This operation is often associated with an increased risk of stroke. A surgeon will remove the dissected aorta and rebuild the blood vessel with a synthetic graft.

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